A font is a specific typeface of a certain size and style. For example, one font may be Arial 12 pt bold, while another font may be Times New Roman 14 pt italic. Most word processing programs have a Font menu that allows you to choose the typeface, size, and style of the text. In order to use a font, you must have it installed on your computer. Windows provides access to fonts using the Fonts control panel. The Mac OS stores fonts in a Fonts folder and includes a separate Font Book application for managing fonts.
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Most people have several thousand files on their computers hard disk, so imagine how hard it would be to find anything if the files were not organized. Fortunately, all hard disks use a file system, which organizes all the files on the disk. The file system is created when you initialize or format your hard disk. It sets up the root directory and subsequent directories beneath it. The file system allows you to create new files and folders, which are added to different parts of the file tree on your hard disk.
For example, your hard disk probably has separate folders for programs, documents, pictures, music, and movie files. Within these folders, there are likely other folders that futher organize your files. All these folders (or directories) are organized by your computers file system. There are also several folders your computers operating system uses to store system files, such as startup data and system preferences. Some of these folders are invisible to the user, but are recognized by the computers file system.
Older Windows machines used a file system called FAT32, while newer Windows computers use NTFS. Macintosh computers used the HFS file system for a long time, but now use an updated version of HFS, called HFS . Though you typically dont need to know all the details of your computers file system, it is nice to know that it is always working to keep your files organized.
The Escape key is located in the upper-left corner of a computer keyboard. It typically resides to the left of the Function keys (F1, F2, F3, etc.) and above the tilde (~) key. Most often, is is labeled with the abbreviation esc.
The Escape key has many purposes, which have evolved over time. Most uses share the common action of exiting or escaping an operation. The Escape key is often used to quit, cancel, or abort a process that is running on a computer.
Some specific examples of Escape key functions include:
While most applications dont require the use of the Escape (esc) key, it can be a handy shortcut for stopping or canceling operations on your computer.
Escape key on a Logitech Wave keyboard
Someone who grew up singing and going through all his school years being in the choir, then graduates and goes to college to study to be a choir teacher.
Returns back to his high school as a choir teacher, and enjoys the rest of his days teaching younger boys how to sing like girls.
Stands for Error Correction Code. ECC is used to verify data transmissions by locating and correcting transmission errors. It is commonly used by RAM chips that include forward error correction (FEC), which ensures all the data being sent to and from the RAM is transmitted correctly.
ECC RAM or memory is similar to parity RAM, which includes a parity bit that validates the data being sent. The parity bit is a redundant binary value of 1 or 0 that is sent along with the data. If the parity bit does not match the value of the data it represents, it indicates an error in the transmission and the data may need to be resent. ECC works in a similar way, but uses a more advanced error correction system that can correct data transmission errors on the fly.
Since ECC memory requires more processing, it can be slower than non-ECC RAM and basic parity RAM. However, ECC RAM provides more reliable data transfers, which results is greater system stability. Therefore, high-end servers and workstations may use ECC memory to minimize crashes and system downtime.
The Dvorak keyboard is a keyboard layout named after its designer, Dr. August Dvorak. He designed the keyboard as alternative to the standard QWERTY keyboard layout, with the goal of improving typing ergonomics.
Dvorak developed the new keyboard layout after studying common typing patterns. He determined the QWERTY layout, which was designed for telegraph operators and early typewriters, was inefficient. It required awkward motions, didnt use the home row (ASDF) enough, and required many common key patterns to be typed with one hand.
To improve typing efficiency, Dvorak designed his keyboard layout to alternate keystrokes between left and right hands. He also placed the most common letters in the home row. For example, since nearly all words have vowels, the home row on the Dvorak keyboard begins with the letters AOEUI. The vowel keys are placed next to each other since vowels often alternate with consonants.
Dvorak patented his keyboard layout in 1936, claiming layout offered the faster typing speeds, greater accuracy, and less fatigue than the QWERTY keyboard. Despite these benefits, the Dvorak keyboard has never achieved the popularity of the QWERTY layout. Most people still learn to type on a QWERTY keyboard and simply do not want to relearn a new keyboard layout. Therefore, nearly all desktop computers and laptops sold in Western countries come with QWERTY keyboards.
NOTE: The original version of the Dvorak keyboard is also known as the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard (DSK). In 1982, ANSI standardized a slight variation of the Dvorak keyboard layout, called the American Simplified Keyboard (ASK).
A dual boot system is a computer that can boot into two different operating systems. While most computers automatically load a specific operating system (OS) at startup, a dual boot system allows you to choose what OS you would like to load. For example, a dual boot Windows system may provide an option to load either Windows 7 or Windows 8 at startup. Linux and Mac OS X users can install Windows to create a Linux/Windows or Mac/Windows dual boot configuration.
Dual boot systems are often used by computer enthusiasts, who prefer different operating systems for different tasks or want to run OS-specific applications. Software developers also use dual boot systems to test their software on multiple operating systems. A single dual boot system is more efficient than buying and setting up two separate computers.
In order to create a dual boot system, you first need to install a custom boot manager or boot loader. This is a small program that loads near the beginning of the boot sequence before the OS loads. Common PC boot loaders include LILO and GRUB, which support Linux and Windows. Mac users can install Apples Boot Camp utility. In most cases, you will need to install each operating system on a separate partitions. Linux installations may require multiple partitions just for the Linux OS. While the disk partitioning can be done manually, it is typically accomplished using a dual boot utility like EasyBCD (Windows) or Boot Camp (Mac OS X).
While many users still create dual boot machines, virtualization has become a more common way to run multiple operating systems on a single computer. Unlike dual booting, virtualization allows you to run multiple operating systems at the same time and switch between them without restarting. However, booting into a specific OS typically yields the best performance.
NOTE: Dual boot may also be called multi boot, which refers to a computer than can load two or more different operating systems.
A drive-by download is a download that happens automatically when you visit a webpage. The download starts without you initiating it and may take place in the background without any notification.
Drive-by downloads can occur on both legitimate and malicious websites. For example, if a hacker gains access to a trusted website, he can install code on webpages that will initiate automatic downloads on visitors computers. Malicious websites, such as those used in phishing and pharming activities, may intentionally download malware on users computers.
While drive-by downloads happen automatically, it is rare that the an executable file will run without your permission. This is because most browsers notify you when a file has been downloaded and will not open downloaded files automatically. Therefore, you can prevent damage from drive-by downloads by simply not opening unknown files downloaded by your web browser.
Norton Safe Web Drive-By Download Warning