While downloading is receiving a file from another computer, uploading is the exact opposite. It is sending a file from your computer to another system. Pretty straight forward. It is possible to upload and download at the same time, but it may cause slower transfer speeds, especially if you have a low bandwidth connection. Because most files are located on Internet servers, people generally do a lot more downloading than uploading.
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Stands for Solid State Drive. An SSD is a type of mass storage device similar to a hard disk drive (HDD). It supports reading and writing data and maintains stored data in a permanent state even without power. Internal SSDs connect to a computer like a hard drive, using standard IDE or SATA connections.
While SSDs serve the same function as hard drives, their internal components are much different. Unlike hard drives, SSDs do not have any moving parts (which is why they are called solid state drives). Instead of storing data on magnetic platters, SSDs store data using flash memory. Since SSDs have no moving parts, they dont have to spin up while in a sleep state and they dont need to move a drive head to different parts of the drive to access data. Therefore, SSDs can access data faster than HDDs.
SSDs have several other advantages over hard drives as well. For example, the read performance of a hard drive declines when data gets fragmented, or split up into multiple locations on the disk. The read performance of an SSD does not diminish based on where data is stored on the drive. Therefore defragmenting an SSD is not necessary. Since SSDs do not store data magnetically, they are not susceptible to data loss due to strong magnetic fields in close proximity to the drive. Additionally, since SSDs have no moving parts, there is far less chance of a mechanical breakdown. SSDs are also lighter, quieter, and use less power than hard drives. This is why SSDs have become a popular choice for laptop computers.
While SSDs have many advantages over HDDs, they also have some drawbacks. Since the SSD technology is much newer than traditional hard drive technology, the price of SSDs is substantially higher. As of early 2011, SSDs cost about 10 times as much per gigabyte as a hard drive. Therefore, most SSD drives sold today have much smaller capacities than comparable hard drives. They also have a limited number or write cycles, which may cause their performance to degrade over time. Fortunately, newer SSDs have improved reliability and should last several years before any reduction in performance is noticeable. As the SSD technology improves and the prices continue to fall, it is likely that solid state drives will begin to replace hard disk drives for most purposes.
Secondary memory refers to storage devices, such as hard drives and solid state drives. It may also refer to removable storage media, such as USB flash drives, CDs, and DVDs.
Unlike primary memory, secondary memory is not accessed directly by the CPU. Instead, data accessed from secondary memory is first loaded into RAM and is then sent to the processor. The RAM plays an important intermediate role, since it provides much faster data access speeds than secondary memory. By loading software programs and files into primary memory, computers can process data much more quickly.
While secondary memory is much slower than primary memory, it typically offers far greater storage capacity. For example, a computer may have a one terabyte hard drive, but only 16 gigabytes of RAM. That means the computer has roughly 64 times more secondary memory than primary memory. Additionally, secondary memory is non-volatile, meaning it retains its data with or without electrical power. RAM, on the other hand, is erased when a computer is shut down or restarted. Therefore, secondary memory is used to store permanent data, such as the operating system, applications, and user files.
NOTE: Secondary memory may also be called secondary storage. However, this term is a bit more ambiguous, since internal storage devices are sometimes called primary storage devices as well.
RJ45 is a type of connector commonly used for Ethernet networking. It looks similar to a telephone jack, but is slightly wider. Since Ethernet cables have an RJ45 connector on each end, Ethernet cables are sometimes also called RJ45 cables.
The RJ in RJ45 stands for registered jack, since it is a standardized networking interface. The 45 simply refers to the number of the interface standard. Each RJ45 connector has eight pins, which means an RJ45 cable contains eight separate wires. If you look closely at the end of an Ethernet cable, you can actually see the eight wires, which are each a different color. Four of them are solid colors, while the other four are striped.
RJ45 cables can be wired in two different ways. One version is called T-568A and the other is T-568B. These wiring standards are listed below:
Stands for Plastic Pin Grid Array (not the Pretty People Golfers Association). PPGA is a type of processor design or form factor used by the Intel Celeron processor. The design allows the heat generated by the chip to dissipate more quickly. This enables the processor to use more transistors and run at higher speeds without burning a hole in the side of your computer. If youd like to know more about PPGA, check out Intels own documention.
An operating system, or OS, is software that communicates with the hardware and allows other programs to run. It is comprised of system software, or the fundamental files your computer needs to boot up and function. Every desktop computer, tablet, and smartphone includes an operating system that provides basic functionality for the device.
Common desktop operating systems include Windows, OS X, and Linux. While each OS is different, most provide a graphical user interface, or GUI, that includes a desktop and the ability to manage files and folders. They also allow you to install and run programs written for the operating system. Windows and Linux can be installed on standard PC hardware, while OS X is designed to run on Apple systems. Therefore, the hardware you choose affects what operating system(s) you can run.
Mobile devices, such as tablets and smartphones also include operating systems that provide a GUI and can run applications. Common mobile OSes include Android, iOS, and Windows Phone. These OSes are developed specifically for portable devices and therefore are designed around touchscreen input. While early mobile operating systems lacked many features found in desktop OSes, they now include advanced capabilities, such as the ability to run third-party apps and run multiple apps at once.
Since the operating system serves as a computers fundamental user interface, it significantly affects how you interact with the device. Therefore, many users prefer to use a specific operating system. For example, one user may prefer to use a computer with OS X instead of a Windows-based PC. Another user may prefer an Android-based smartphone instead of an iPhone, which runs the iOS.
When software developers create applications, they must be write and compile them for a specific operating system. This is because each OS communicates with the hardware differently and has a specific application program interface, or API, that the programmer must use. While many popular programs are crossplatform, meaning they have been developed for multiple OSes, some are only available for a single operating system. Therefore, when choosing a computer, it is important to make sure the operating system supports the programs you want to run.
OS X 10.11 - El Capitan Operating System
Stands for Online Analytical Processing. OLAP allows users to analyze database information from multiple database systems at one time. While relational databases are considered to be two-dimensional, OLAP data is multidimensional, meaning the information can be compared in many different ways. For example, a company might compare their computer sales in June with sales in July, then compare those results with the sales from another location, which might be stored in a different database.
In order to process database information using OLAP, an OLAP server is required to organize and compare the information. Clients can analyze different sets of data using functions built into the OLAP server. Some popular OLAP server software programs include Oracle Express Server and Hyperion Solutions Essbase. Because of its powerful data analysis capabilities, OLAP processing is often used for data mining, which aims to discover new relationships between different sets of data.
Stands for Network Attached Storage. A typical computer stores data using internal and external hard drives. If the computer is connected to a network, it can share data on its connected hard drives with other systems on the network. While this allows multiple computers to send data back and forth, it requires that each computer share its files individually. Therefore, if a computer is turned off or disconnected from the network, its files will not be available to the other systems.
By using NAS, computers can store and access data using a centralized storage location. Instead of each computer sharing its own files, the shared data is stored on a single NAS server. This provides a simpler and more reliable way of sharing files on a network. Once an NAS server connected to a network (typically via Ethernet), it can be configured to share files with multiple computers on the network. It may allow access to all systems or may provide access to a limited number of authenticated machines.
NAS servers typically contain multiple hard drives, providing a large amount of shared disk space for connected systems to save data. They are often used in business networks, but have become increasing more common in home networks as well. Since NAS uses a centralized storage device, it can be a simple way for family members to share and backup their data.
Metadata describes other data. It provides information about a certain items content. For example, an image may include metadata that describes how large the picture is, the color depth, the image resolution, when the image was created, and other data. A text documents metadata may contain information about how long the document is, who the author is, when the document was written, and a short summary of the document.
Web pages often include metadata in the form of meta tags. Description and keywords meta tags are commonly used to describe the Web pages content. Most search engines use this data when adding pages to their search index.