A Null character is a character with all its bits set to zero. Therefore, it has a numeric value of zero and can be used to represent the end of a string of characters, such as a word or phrase. This helps programmers determine the length of strings. In practical applications, such as database and spreadsheet programs, Null characters are used as fillers for spaces.
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Microblogging is posting brief and often frequent updates online. Unlike traditional blogs, which are often hosted on a custom website, microblogs are typically published on social media sites like Twitter or Facebook.
The most common microblogging platform is Twitter, which allows allows you to post updates of 140 characters or less. These updates, called tweets, may include hashtags, mentions (links to other Twitter users), or links to online resources, such as webpages, images, or videos. When you microblog using Twitter, your updates are seen by all users who have chosen to follow you.
Microblogging on Facebook is more flexible than on Twitter, since you can post longer updates and include media directly in your posts. You can also share content with other users, similar to Twitters retweet feature. Though Facebook makes it easy to post quick updates, its focus is more towards social networking than microblogging. Therefore, Twitter remains the most popular microblogging platform.
While Facebook and Twitter dominate the microblogging scene, there are several other options available. One popular service is Tumblr, a website (owned by Yahoo!) that was designed specifically for microblogging. Tumblr allows you to easily insert photos, videos, quotes, and links into your posts and includes a reblog feature for sharing other users posts. Another service is Google , which is similar to Facebook, and allows you to post updates that can be seen by the public or specific user within Google circles. Instagram (owned by Facebook) is a microblogging platform designed for sharing images, while Vine allows you to share short videos.
Lossy file compression results in lost data and quality from the original version. Lossy compression is typically associated with image files, such as JPEGs, but can also be used for audio files, like MP3s or AAC files. The lossyness of an image file may show up as jagged edges or pixelated areas. In audio files, the lossyness may produce a watery sound or reduce the dynamic range of the audio.
Because lossy compression removes data from the original file, the resulting file often takes up much less disk space than the original. For example, a JPEG image may reduce an images file size by more than 80%, with little noticeable effect. Similarly, a compressed MP3 file may be one tenth the size of the original audio file and may sound almost identical.
The keyword here is almost. JPEG and MP3 compression both remove data from the original file, which may be noticeable upon close examination. Both of these compression algorithms allow for various quality settings, which determine how compressed the file will be. The quality setting involves a trade-off between quality and file size. A file that uses greater compression will take up less space, but may not look or sound as good as a less compressed file. Some image and audio formats allow lossless compression, which does not reduce the files quality at all.
A laser printer is a printer that uses a focused beam or light to transfer text and images onto paper. Though contrary to popular belief, the laser does not actually burn the images onto the paper. Instead, as paper passes through the printer, the laser beam fires at the surface of a cylindrical drum called a photoreceptor. This drum has an electrical charge (typically positive), that is reversed in areas where the laser beam hits it. By reversing the charge in certain areas of the drum, the laser beam can print patterns (such as text and pictures) onto the photoreceptor.
Once the pattern has been created on the drum, it is coated with toner from a toner cartridge. The toner is black in most cartridges, but may be cyan, magenta, and yellow in color laser printers. The positively charged toner clings to areas of the drum that have been negatively charged by the laser. When the paper passes through the printer, the drum is given a strong negative charge, which allows the toner to transfer and stick to the paper. The result is a clean copy of the image written on the paper.
Because laser printers do not use ink, they have less image smearing problems than inkjet printers and are able to print pages faster. While laser printers and toner cartridges typically cost more than inkjet printers and ink cartridges, most laser toner cartridges last several times longer than ink cartridges, which makes their cost per page about equal. For this reason, businesses tend to use laser printers, while consumers are more likely to use inkjet printers. Laser printers typically have a resolution of 600 dpi (dots per inch) or higher.
Horizontal Market Software
A horizontal market is one that supplies goods to a variety of industries instead of just one. Therefore, horizontal market software is software that can be used by several different types of industries.
For example, word processing and spreadsheet programs are horizontal market applications because they can be used by many types of businesses and consumers. A business owner might use word processing software to type memos to his employees, while a student might use the same program to write a paper for a class.
Software developers that create programs for horizontal markets typically have a broad audience, but also face high levels of competition. The opposite of horizontal market software is vertical market software, which is only developed for a specific industry.
A hashtag is a number symbol (#) used to label keywords in a tweet. The name hashtag was coined by Twitter and combines the word hash (another name for the number symbol) and tag, since it is used to tag certain words. In order to tag a keyword in a Twitter post, simply type a number symbol (Shift 3) immediately before the word. For example, you can tag the word tech in a tweet by typing #tech.
Twitter automatically turns hashtagged words into links to a dynamic feed. This feed is updated in real-time and lists all recent tweets containing the same hashtag. When you post a tweet with a hashtag, your tweet will show up in the public feed. Besides clicking on hashtags within tweets, you can also search for hashtags using Twitters search feature.
Hashtags are used to categorize tweets, since all tweets with the same hashtag are related. Therefore, searching for hashtags is a good way to monitor hot topics or trends. For example, #marchmadness is popular during the March NCAA tournament, while #election might be popular during political elections. Company names, such as #apple and #microsoft, are common hashtagged terms and may be used when people comment on new product releases. As people post tweets with the same hashtag, the corresponding feed can easily turn into a discussion.
A hashtag can be any word or combination or words and can also include numbers. You can use trending hashtags in your tweets or make up your own. However, it is best to use popular hashtags if you want others to see your tweet. Each Twitter post can include multiple hashtags, though Twitter discourages spamming tweets with hashtags and recommends using no more than three hashtags per tweet. It is common to include hashtags at the end of a tweet, but you can hashtag any word by simply adding a number symbol in front of it.